Sex Education: The FACTS

Discussion in 'Sex and Relationships' started by melicious, Jun 6, 2007.

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  1. melicious

    melicious The Old Maid
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    Recently we've had some questions posed to the group that we (mods) feel should have already been addressed in general sex education courses. The education seems to be seriously lacking. So, we're starting our own remedial sex education course. If there is a fact that YOU believe should be included, please feel free to email one of the mods. We will then verify necessary info as true fact, and add it to the post. We have locked it to mods only, to make sure it remains a "facts only" topic.
     
  2. melicious

    melicious The Old Maid
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    How effective are home tests/ signs of pregnancy

    Description
    Home pregnancy tests detect the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which is present in the urine of a pregnant woman. These tests are simple to use and almost 100% effective if done correctly. HCG is produced by the placenta in increasing amounts 10 days after fertilization. An absence of a menstrual period in a sexually active female is usually the first reason a pregnancy test is utilized. Other signs of pregnancy that occur include:

    Morning sickness (nausea, vomiting, food and smell intolerance).
    Frequent urination.
    Tender, swollen breasts.
    Darkening of the area (areola) around the nipples.
    Food cravings.
    Blue and pink lines under the skin on the breasts and later on the abdomen.

    Negative Results

    If a pregnancy test is negative and the woman is still not menstruating, she should wait the number of days suggested in the instructions and test again-making sure all instructions are followed correctly. If the second test is negative and there is still no menstrual period, she should consult the doctor.
    A false negative can occur with a home pregnancy test. The result indicates there is no pregnancy when in fact there is. Pregnant women don't always produce the HCG hormone at the same rate, so a woman could be pregnant, but not yet producing enough of the hormone to obtain a positive test result. Also, the levels of the hormone needed to trigger the positive results vary from test to test. One of the problems of a false-negative result is that a woman might continue certain practices, such as smoking, excessive drinking or using some medications that are potentially harmful to the baby's health.
    Positive Results

    A positive result of a home pregnancy test does not replace the need to schedule an appointment with the doctor. Confirmation of the pregnancy is determined with a physical examination that is combined with a complete prenatal checkup.

    Source: http://www.wramc.amedd.army.mil/education/pat_edu/womenhlth/pregnancy/homepregtest.htm
     
  3. melicious

    melicious The Old Maid
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    When am I most/least fertile?

    Researchers showed that 2% of women started their fertile window by day four of their menstrual cycle, and 17% by day seven. Day one of the menstrual cycle is the day that menstruation begins. More than 70% of women were in their fertile window before day 10 or after day 17. Women who regarded their menstrual cycles as "regular" had a 1 to 6 percent probability of being fertile even on the day that their next period was expected to begin. This leaves few "safe" days for natural birth control methods such as the "rhythm method."

    Source: http://womenshealth.about.com/cs/pregnancy/a/whenpregoccur.htm
     
  4. Puss_in_boots

    Puss_in_boots Adminatrix
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    Birth Control 101: condoms and the pill

    Every year, 85 percent of women aged 15–44 who don’t use birth control during vaginal intercourse become pregnant. Although the only guarantee against unintended pregnancy is to not have sex, using birth control can reduce your risk of pregnancy from vaginal intercourse. To decide which method to use at this point in your life, think about the answers to these questions:

    * How well will it fit into your lifestyle?
    * How convenient will it be?
    * How effective will it be?
    * How safe will it be?
    * How affordable will it be?
    * How reversible will it be?
    * Will it protect against sexually transmitted infections?

    For extensive information about the pill click here.

    Keep mind that nothing is 100% effective apart from abstinence. Anytime there is genital contact between two fertile people of the opposite sex - whether you use protection or not - there will be a risk of pregnancy. However, the pill is one of the most effective forms of birth control there is, having only a 0.1% failure rate.

    For extensive information about condoms click here.

    Of 100 women whose partners use condoms, about 15 will become pregnant during the first year of typical use.* Only two women will become pregnant with perfect use.** More protection against pregnancy is possible if condoms are used with a spermicide foam, cream, jelly, suppository, or film.

    *Typical use refers to failure rates when use is not consistent or always correct.
    **Perfect use refers to failure rates for those whose use is consistent and always correct.

    They also protect both partners during vaginal and anal sex from sexually transmitted infection. Latex condoms offer very good protection against HIV.
     
  5. Puss_in_boots

    Puss_in_boots Adminatrix
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    Birth Control 101: Birth Control Efficacy (how well does it work?)

    Some birth control methods work better than others. The chart below compares how well different birth control methods work.

    The most effective way to prevent pregnancy is abstinence. However, within the first year of committing to abstinence, many couples become pregnant because they have sex anyway but don't use protection. So it's a good idea even for people who don't plan to have sex to be informed about birth control.

    Couples who do have sex need to use birth control properly and every time to prevent pregnancy. For example, the chart below shows that the birth control pill can be effective in preventing pregnancy. But if a girl forgets to take her birth control pills, then this is not an effective method for her. Condoms can be an effective way to prevent pregnancy, too. But if a guy forgets to use a condom or doesn't use it correctly, then it's not an effective way for him to prevent pregnancy.

    For every 100 couples using each type of birth control, the chart shows how many of these couples will get pregnant within a year. The information shown is for all couples, not just teenage couples. Some birth control methods may be less effective for teen users. For example, teenage girls who follow the rhythm method may have an even greater chance of getting pregnant than adult women because their bodies have not yet settled into a regular menstrual cycle.

    We list the effectiveness of different birth control methods based on their typical use rates. Typical use refers to how the average person uses that method of birth control (compared to "perfect" use, which means no mistakes are made in using that method).

    For us to consider a birth control method completely effective, no couples will become pregnant while using that method. Very effective means that between 1 and 2 out of 100 couples become pregnant while using that method. Effective means that 2 to 12 out of 100 couples become pregnant while using that method. Moderately effective means that 13 to 20 out of 100 couples become pregnant while using that method. Less effective means that 21 to 40 out of 100 couples become pregnant while using that method. And not effective means that more than 40 out of 100 couples become pregnant while using that method.

    In addition to preventing pregnancy, abstinence and condoms provide some protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, most birth control methods do not provide much protection against STDs.

    (Method) Consistent Abstinence (How many couples using this method will get pregnant in a year?) None (Efficacy?) Completely effective (Can this method also protect against STDs?) Yes

    Birth Control Patch ("The Patch")
    5 to 8 out of 100 Effective No

    Birth Control Pill ("The Pill") 5 to 8 out of 100 Effective No

    Birth Control Ring
    ("The Ring") 5 to 8 out of 100 Effective No

    Female Condom
    21 out of 100 Less effective Yes

    Male Condom 15 out of 100 Moderately effective Yes

    Birth Control Shot
    3 out of 100 Effective No

    Diaphragm 16 out of 100 Moderately effective No

    Emergency Contraception
    1 to 2 out of 100 Very effective No

    IUD Fewer than 1 out of 100 Very effective No

    Rhythm Method 25 out of 100 Less effective No

    Spermicide
    29 out of 100 Less effective No

    Withdrawal ("Pulling Out") 27 out of 100 Less effective No

    Not Using Any Birth Control 85 out of 100 Not effective No

    source
     
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